Technical Information · END MILLS
finishing End Mill stylEs
Plain Shank: Most common type of shank; this is used in conjunction with a collet type holder.
Weldon Shank: Contains 1 or 2 flats for set screws to tighten on flanks of flats to hold the end mill in place so it will not rotate.
Bright Finish: Uncoated and provides the most economical price point for the tool. TiN (Titanium Nitride): This treatment will provide heat resistance and extreme hardness to allow the tool to run at higher feeds and speeds. TiN allows higher lubricity for freer chip flow, reducing build-up edge formation and cratering - great for general purpose use. On non-ferrous materials there is a tendency to gall so please use caution. TiN also requires an increase of 25% to 30% in machining speeds vs. uncoated tools. TiCN (Titanium Carbonitride): When under conditions of moderate cutting temperatures, TiCN provides harder and more wear resistant than TiN. It also provides 50% more spindle speed compared to TiN, especially in stainless steels. There is a tendency to gall on non-ferrous materials so please use caution. TiCN also requires an increase of 35% to 50% in machining speeds vs. uncoated tools. TiAIN (Titanium Aluminum Nitride): TiAIN is ideal for instances of extremely high temperatures enabling the user to increase the surface feet per minute, use less coolant and extend tool life. It is ideal for nickelbased high-temperature alloys, high alloy carbon steels, titanium alloys, and stainless steel. There is a tendency to gall on non-ferrous material so please use caution. There is a requirement of 75% to 100% machining speeds vs. uncoated tools. AlTiN (Aluminum Titanium Nitride): Primarily used in nickel alloys, titanium, stainless steel and machining aircraft/aerospace materials. It is also used in dry machining of selected carbon steel, cast irons and modular irons. AlTiN requires an increase of 75% to 100% in machining speeds vs. uncoated tools and allows for aggressive speeds and feeds. ZrN (Zirconium Nitride): ZrN provides a higher oxidation temperature than TiN, resisting sticking of heated aluminum, increasing lubricity and preventing edge build-up. ZrN also provides an improved finish when used in copper, aluminum, brass and other non-ferrous materials.
Carbide Tipped: A cost effective option for tools that are larger in diameter. Offers all the distinct advantages of solid carbide tooling (see below). The carbide is brazed to the cutting edges of steel tool bodies.
Cobalt: Usage results in little chipping when under severe cutting conditions. The tool is able to run 10% faster than high speed steel which allows for great metal removal rates and good finishes. This end mill also provides higher toughness, better wear resistance and higher hot hardness than high speed steel. It is also cost-effective for matching titanium alloys, machining cast iron and heat treated steels.
High Speed Steel: Commonly used for general purpose milling of both ferrous and non-ferrous materials. High speed steel costs less than carbide and cobalt while providing good wear resistance.
Powdered Metal (PM) Cobalt: Powdered Metal is a cheaper alternative to solid carbide and is generally used in high-shock applications such as roughing. This tool is tougher and less prone to breakage; optimal performance in materials <30RC.
Solid Carbide: Primarily used in finishing applications, solid carbide provides numerous advantages over cobalt materials and high speed steel. Carbide has the ability to run faster due to the hardness of the material which allows the cutter to withstand high cutting temperatures. Solid carbide is more rigid than high speed steel, enabling this end mill to display high degrees of dimensional accuracy, excellent wear resistance and great surface finishes. The strongest attribute of carbide is its hardness, which comes at the expense of its toughness. It should be noted that under non-ideal conditions, carbide tends to chip. High speed steel and cobalt tools are more suitable for heavy feed rates; carbide is best to maximize speed and tool life since it can be run 2-3X faster.
· Pick the shortest possible end mill for the greatest rigidity. · Choose two or three flutes for slotting or heavy stock removal. · Pick multiple flutes for greater rigidity and finishing. · For high production applications, use cobalt, PM/Plus and carbide for tougher and harder materials. · For higher feeds, speeds and tool life apply coatings.